A study has found those who grill meat on charcoal, wood, or coal have a 12% increase risk of suffering a heart attack, stroke or heart failure.
Researchers from the University of Oxford studied 341,000 people in China, measuring their exposure to cooking mediums and their risk of heart death (8,300 died of heart disease unrelated to smoking and other factors). They additionally found that for every decade after one switched to cooking with gas or electric, their risk factor lowered by 5%.
Study authors suggest if one would switch to a gas or electric grill, the risk could be reversible. Daily Mail reports the following:
Last Spring, scientists found grilling may increase one’s risk of high blood pressure. In this study, reported by medical xpress, they found high blood pressure risk to be:
Chinese researchers find the smoke released during grilling to expose one to cancer- causing chemicals.
As we head into the summer, grilling burgers, hotdogs, and steaks are a favorite pastime. But a small study published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology suggests PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), produced during grilling, are inhaled and absorbed through the skin, potentially causing genetic mutations that may cause cancer.
The study, out of Guangzhou, China, found those consuming the grilled meat had the highest exposure to PAH’s. Next came those exposed through skin, and finally those inhaling the smoke to be at next greatest risk.
Clothing provided some protection, but once smoke saturated, should be removed to lessen exposure.
The average person is considered safe if they grill in moderation, but excessive exposure could put them at higher risk of PAH-induced cancers such as lung, bladder and skin cancers.
For more on the study read here.
The heating of foods to high temperatures can cause chemical reactions among the amino acids, fats and sugars in foods, producing toxic substances. Acrylamide, as discussed below, can be formed when heating starches such as potatoes, to high levels.
Acrylamide is a chemical used in many industrial products that produce plastics, adhesives, food packaging and the treatment of drinking water. It can also be produced when foods are heated, fried, baked, or roasted to above 120 degrees Celsius (248 degrees Fahrenheit). In 2002 reports came out regarding acrylamide in french fries, and in 2013 the FDA issued guidance to the food industry on how to minimize producing the chemical.
Roasting coffee requires the beans to be heated to close to 450 degrees Fahrenheit. This heat produces a chemical reaction between the amino acid asparagine and sugars resulting in the formation of acrylamide.
The amounts however are miniscule. Much smaller than other modes of acrylamide exposure such as cigarette smoking and exposure at work when working in industries that use acrylamide such as plastics, food processing, mining, paper, agriculture and construction.
In rodents, acrylamide was found to increase several types of cancer. But the doses were 1,000-10,000 times greater than what the average human is exposed to.
According to the American Cancer Society, most of the studies done so far have not found an increased risk of cancer in humans. For some types of cancer, such as kidney, ovarian and endometrial cancer, the results have been mixed, but there are currently no cancer types for which there is clearly an increased risk related to acrylamide intake.
As noted earlier, acrylamide can be in a variety of products we use throughout the day. Large quantities, however, can be consumed through cigarette smoke, hence avoiding smoking is key. Moreover, avoiding frying foods, especially starches, greater than 120 degrees Celsius/248 degrees Fahrenheit if possible. Frying and or toasting to a light gold, rather than crispy dark brown color, may limit your exposure as well.
But keep in mind, numerous studies have found coffee drinkers to lower their risk of cancer, especially liver, uterine, prostate and mouth cancer. However 4-6 cups had to be consumed in order for researchers to notice a benefit.
More research still needs to be done on all fronts when it comes to grilling mediums, crispiness of our cooking and coffee. So while we wait for the verdict let’s kick back with something safe…..I guess a cup of water??
After being diagnosed with a brain tumor a little over a year ago, Senator John McCain has chosen to end treatment for the deadly cancer.
The 81-year-old Vietnam veteran and former POW was diagnosed with a primary glioblastoma in the summer of 2017. Since then he has bravely fought the malignant brain tumor. His family reported this week the following:
Last summer, Senator John McCain shared with Americans the news our family already knew: he had been diagnosed with an aggressive glioblastoma, and the prognosis was serious. In the year since, John has surpassed expectations for his survival. But the progress of disease and the inexorable advance of age render their verdict. With his usual strength of will, he has now chosen to discontinue medical treatment.
Our family is immensely grateful for the support and kindness of all his caregivers over the last year, and for the continuing outpouring of concern and affection from John’s many friends and associates, and the many thousands of people who are keeping him in their prayers. God bless and thank you all.
Although still politically vocal, Senator McCain has not been in Washington since December. He’s been at his home in Arizona with his family.
Primary Glioblastoma Multiforme is a type of brain tumor that arises in the brain and spinal cord and is very aggressive in nature. “Primary” suggests the tumor is not secondary to another cancer, such as the melanoma Senator McCain successfully battled.
In 1993, 2000 and 2002, McCain had three malignant melanoma lesions removed, and the 2000 lesion was close to his left temple.
Those diagnosed with a glioblastoma may have a poorer prognosis compared to other cancers as the 5-year survival rate is only 10%. Its median survival is less than 15 months.
In 2017, doctors were optimistic as his lesion had been removed, and chemotherapy and radiation were set to immediately begin once his incision had healed.
However many may choose to end cancer treatment early due to side effects or the desire to spend their remaining weeks with family devoid of medical procedures and hospital trips. It's understandable and gutsy. Our prayers are with him and his family during this difficult time.
Last year we learned that some patients, who were evaluated for a stroke or transient ischemic attack when they had come to the ER complaining of recurrent “temporary blindness” after checking their smartphone in the dark were suffering from a phenomenon, known as ‘smartphone blindness.’ This has also been experienced by many of us when we have the sensation of dimmed vision or poor visual acuity, feeling punished for peeking at our email when we should be sleeping.
But now we have a study suggesting vision loss could be permanent due to the blue light being emitted from our smartphones or laptops.
Researchers from the University of Toledo found blue light will react with retinal, an active form of Vitamin A, that can damage the nearby cells they are designed to stimulate when creating sight.
Researcher Kasun Ratnayake states, “If you shine blue light on retinal, the retinal kills photoreceptor cells as the signaling molecule on the membrane dissolves,” and since these cells do not regenerate they are gone for good.
Although a blue-light induced retinal activated cell could prove useful when fighting cancer, this finding is worrisome as millions of people, including children, look at their smartphone and tablet in the dark, depending on the blue light more and more to see their screens.
Sunlight is made up of the spectrum of colors including red, orange, yellow, green, blue and purple. Blue light is a light along the spectrum that has shorter wavelengths and more energy than red, which has longer wavelengths. We receive most of our blue light exposure from the sun but we can be exposed as well through our smart devices, LED lights and CFL (compact fluorescent light) bulbs.
IMAGE FROM PREVENTBLINDNESS.ORG
Studies surfaced a few years ago where great lengths of smartphone use can cause retinal detachment. In these cases the layer of the retina which focuses images, detaches from the back of the eye, causing serious vision loss. Though there are treatments, if not treated early can cause permanent blindness in the affected eye since the retina loses its blood and oxygen supply when detached. A woman from China had been using her smartphone for 2-3 hours in the dark each night when this occurred.
Smartphones have also been linked to myopia, near-sightedness, and sleeping disorders as the blue light emitted from the screen can disrupt melatonin production.
A recent study found that 30% of adults spend more than 9 hours a day using their smartphone. Physicians recommend avoiding extended use, adjust settings to black text on white background, and with this recent case study, use both eyes to look at the screen when using the phone at night.
A study from the University of Exeter and Barcelona Institute for Global Health finds blue light exposure at night-time to increase the risk of breast and prostate cancer.
Blue light is emitted from artificial lighting, such as LED’s and smart devices, and has been linked in the past to cancer, heart disease, diabetes and obesity. Why? Scientists believe the blue wavelengths in the light disrupt our circadian rhythm, or our body’s biological clock, by suppressing the secretion of melatonin. Poor sleep, and unpredictable body cycles, can affect our metabolism, hence our weight, diabetes risk and cancer risk.
In this study, published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, researchers reviewed data of more than 4000 patients, between the ages of 20 and 85, from 11 different geographical regions. They found exposure to blue light at night doubled the risk of prostate cancer in men, and increased breast cancer risk in women by 1.5.
The Sun reports study author Dr. Alejandro Sánchez de Miguel is urging to reduce exposure to outside street lights and use orange wavelength light rather than blue.
“The take-home message is: Use warm orange lights where possible, and shutters and blinds to block street light.
“Also, our findings suggest reducing your night-time exposure to smartphones and tablets could help cut cancer risk.
The recommendation to not use your smart device at night may not be very practical for many. So here are some additional tips:
Increasing the size of the font helps your eyes since they don’t need to strain as much to read. Try to look at your smartphone with a distance of 1 1/2 feet. Blinking often helps rest the eyes as well and keeps them lubricated and moist.
Screen time should be limited in the evenings. Avoid computer/phone screens at least 2-3 hours before bed.
Although LED light bulbs are more energy-efficient, bedroom lighting may need to be swapped for softer bulbs.
If the weather permits, getting some night air and watching the stars may help stimulate one’s melatonin, allowing him/her to get sleepy.
Blue-blocking glasses may help limit exposure if night computer work cannot be avoided.
Additionally there are apps that allow a blue light filter on one’s phone screen.
Finally its good to use the 20,20,20 rule. After every 20 minutes of use, look away at something 20 feet away for 20 seconds. This may help avoid eye strain from excessive smartphone use.
Researchers have found a link between Alzheimer’s and the use of sleeping pills such as benzodiazepines and “Z-drugs.”
“Z-drugs” refer to non-benzodiazepines or hypnotics such as zolpidem (brand name Ambien).
The study from the University of Finland looked at 70,700 individuals who had developed Alzheimer’s during the years 2005-2011. The researchers found regular use of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs increased one’s risk of the neurodegenerative disorder by 6%. Moreover the higher the dose used, the higher the risk.
Benzodiazepines and sleeping pills are being prescribed and used in epidemic proportions leading to more addiction and tolerance to controlled substances, poor timing as we fight the opioid crisis.
Arizona State University researchers last year reported the use of use of sleeping pills is “worse than smoking” for one’s health.
Sleep researcher, Shawn Youngstedt, told CNN, “They are as bad as smoking a pack of cigarettes a day. Not to mention they cause infections, falling and dementia in the elderly, and they lose their effectiveness after a few weeks.”
For years sleeping aids including antihistamines (ex. diphenhydramine), benzodiazepines (ex. lorazepam, alprazolam), non-benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic (ex. Ambien) have been studied and linked to side effects including
In 2012, a study of 10,500 people found those who used sleeping pills were 4X as likely to die in the 2.5-year study than those who didn’t use medications for sleep.
Dr. Kripke and his colleagues at Scripps also found a 35% increase risk of cancer, noting lymphoma, lung, colon and prostate cancer risk was worse than that of smoking.
Also in 2012, a study published in Thorax, found benzodiazepine use linked to the severe lung infection, pneumonia.
In 2014, a study from China Medical University in Taiwan found only four sleeping pills a year increased risk of heart attack by 20% and 60 tablets a year was linked to a 50% increase.
A separate study found an increased risk of aortic dissection with sleeping pill use.
Insomnia is a disorder where one has difficulty falling asleep and/or staying asleep. Many factors can cause insomnia. These include:
Treating insomnia can be complex. We begin by treating the underlying cause, such as any of those listed above. Then we can try the following:
Youngstedt also suggests exercise. He states its “healthier” than using sleeping aids and “research suggests those who are physically active have a lower risk of developing insomnia in the first place.”
Now it could be that those who suffer from certain medical conditions are more at risk of insomnia but more needs to be studied in terms of why these medications are linked to poor health outcomes.
The 76 year-old “Queen of Soul” has reportedly passed after a long bout with pancreatic cancer.
The AP News Tweeted early this morning the following:
Aretha Franklin, the long-reigning “Queen of Soul” who sang with matchless style on such classics as “Think” and her signature song, “Respect,” died Thursday at age 76, said her representative, Gwendolyn Quinn. The cause was advanced pancreatic cancer.
Her last performance was for the Elton John Annual AIDS Foundation Gala in November.
In March the singer cancelled her upcoming performances due to an undisclosed illness.
For years Aretha Franklin has battled rumors about her health ranging from respiratory illnesses to pancreatic cancer.
In an interview with Access Hollywood she said, “I don’t know where ‘pancreatic cancer’ came from.
“I was sitting there reading the newspaper and it was saying someone in my family said that. No one in my family ever said that to anybody.”
The multi-Grammy award winner deserved a little “RESPECT” and the media honored her privacy requests, despite growing concern for her weight loss.
Ms. Franklin reportedly had diabetes. Studies have found a correlation between the common blood sugar disease and the lethal cancer. Once recent study found if one had a worsening of their diabetes it could be a sign of pancreatic cancer. Since diabetes is a disease that affects the pancreas and its ability to produce and release insulin, its logical that there may be a correlation.
Pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate and unfortunately it remains asymptomatic until it has progressed to an advanced stage. So a worsening of diabetes (in the absence of poor diet and lack of compliance with medication) may be the only sign that pancreatic cancer is occurring. The earlier the cancer is caught, the better the prognosis.
She is a legend and has touched us all. May she rest in peace.
Her fellow musicians and friends react:
Let’s all take a moment to give thanks for the beautiful life of Aretha Franklin, the Queen of our souls, who inspired us all for many many years. She will be missed but the memory of her greatness as a musician and a fine human being will live with us forever. Love Paul
This morning my longest friend in this world went home to be with our Father. I will miss her so much but I know she’s at peace. #QueenOfSoul
The greatest voice in American popular music has been stilled. Our beloved #ArethaFranklin has gone. For me, she was a musical lighthouse, guiding and inspiring with every note. I loved her so and love her still. Goodbye, Queen of Soul.
One of the highlights of my career was singing with #ArethaFranklin at The Tony Awards. It was an out of body experience for me. One of greatest singers of all time. You will be missed by all. https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=csm3A80M9qA …
Having gotten in trouble my whole life for doing so, I thought it was about time I investigated what is “swearing”, why it comes so fluently and why we frequently choose to do it. So let's break down the science of swearing…..
Most dictionaries define a curse word as a “profane or obscene word.” But I disagree with this definition. “Profane” comes from the Latin root “profanus”, or “unholy”, and Oxford Dictionary defines “profane” as not relating to that which is sacred or religious; secular, (of a person or their behavior) not respectful of religious practice.
But many of us who use these words when you say “I just stepped in dog $%&t” aren’t referring to religion in any way, shape or form.
“Obscene”, when defined by multiple dictionaries, alludes to terms of a sexual nature. Again, complaining that you just stepped in dog $%&t has nothing to do with sex.
So I define a swear/curse word as one that society deems to be off-color and not appropriate in public and professional settings….a word that has plenty of other socially acceptable alternatives used during anger, excitement, or awe.
According to historians, the first curse words originated in the 15th century. I’m sure horses were just as messy as our dogs. But as you can see by my definition, curse words must have had their origin in caveman days as humans developed language. Rocks were dropped, people slipped and fell, and some burned themselves on early fire so I seriously doubt that only grammatically acceptable words and phrases were used in times of accidents.
Although a good old-fashioned four letter word seems as American as they come, most originate from foreign sources.
According to Business Insider, the noun nods to Old English scitte, meaning “purging, diarrhea.” And just the basic form of excrement stems from Old English scytel. The action, however, has a much more widespread history — Dutch schijten and German scheissen. The Proto-Indo-European base skie conveys the idea of separation, in this case, from the body.
According to the Huffington Post, the f-word is of Germanic origin, related to Dutch, German, and Swedish words for “to strike” and “to move back and forth.” It first appears, though, only in the 16th century, in a manuscript of the Latin orator Cicero. An anonymous monk was reading through the monastery copy of De Officiis (a guide to moral conduct) when he felt compelled to express his anger at his abbot.
Comes from the word “arse” and used as early as the 11th century when referring to an animal’s anatomy, and then later to humans.
Having Old English and Germanic roots, the “B” word represented a female dog. By the 1400’s, however, it became a “term of contempt to women,” according to Business Insider.
There are various theories as to why people would choose a word that may offend others. Here’s mine:
“Fake” curse words are terms we use to convey a curse without actually swearing. Commonly used alternatives to swearing include:
In 2017, a study from Stephens et al, from Keele University in the UK, found swearing to increase strength and power performance when working out.
Previously, in 2009, the same researchers found men who were allowed to swear while immersing their hand in cold water could maintain it twice as long as those who had to keep their language clean.
So if we perform better while cursing, will it ever become acceptable to curse?
Society seems to already accept many curse words, even on prime time television, a barometer we use to determine if a word is OK to say out in public. However once we take a four letter word and “legalize it”, people will gravitate towards words that aren’t acceptable because of the aforementioned reasons. We want to be rebellious and demonstrate our feelings in times of pain and anger.
So for those of you who find this unacceptable, I really couldn’t give a flipp’n cluck.…..
A voluntary recall has been initiated by Flower Foods as their Swiss Rolls, Goldfish and Ritz Crackers may have Salmonella lurking in the box.
Earlier this month Kellogg’s Honey Smacks were recalled for the same reason. And last week the US Department of Agriculture included Hungry-Man Chipotle BBQ Boneless Chicken Wyngz in the recall.
Why? Salmonella may have contaminated the whey protein powder used in these shelf products. Poor hand washing and improperly cleaned machinery could introduce the bacteria into the food supply.
Whey powder comes from milk, provides many of the nutrients such as calcium and thiamine, and is used as a food binder and extender, rendering the food product nonperishable.
Unlike other bacteria, however, Salmonella does not necessarily need moist environments to thrive. According to researchers at the University of Georgia, Salmonella can survive at least 6 months in cookies and crackers.
So the salmonella can live on the whey protein for months. And since most dry snacks are not cooked, there’s no opportunity to kill off the pathogens and those with vulnerable immune systems could become ill after ingestion.
The CDC has reported over 90 people have been sickened with Salmonella being linked to raw turkey.
Over 26 states are currently affected including: Alaska, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and Wisconsin.
Symptoms of salmonella poisoning include fever, chills, rash, diarrhea and stomach cramps within 12-72 hours after exposure. The illness can last 4-7 days, although most people will recover without treatment.
McDonald’s has voluntarily recalled their salads in multiple states as 163 cases are being investigated by the CDC for a food poisoning link.
Multiple issues could be playing a role.
Therefore be diligent about cleaning countertops, cook your food thoroughly, wash produce before eating and be aware of any reported recalls.
Due to a lack of profit potential, Novartis Pharmaceuticals has been the latest to join the exodus of drug companies from antibiotic research and development.
The Swiss based pharmaceutical company will shut down their antibacterial and antiviral research programs resulting in the termination of 140 jobs.
They join Sanofi, Allergan and AstraZeneca who have also pulled out of antimicrobial R & D.
Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck and Roche will remain active in the antimicrobial market.
Since the birth of antibiotics in 1928 with Sir Alexander Fleming’s discovery of Penicillin, we’ve aimed to make them stronger and shrewder than the bacteria. However, nature always wins, and some bacteria have outsmarted our fanciest of antibiotics, as we’ve seen with MRSA (methicillin-resistant staph aureus) and CRE (carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae). The more antibiotics we make and use, the stronger the bacteria become.
Since insurance companies favor generics, new drugs that do go through the long and expensive process of R & D have no guarantee of turning a profit. According to a report published by the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development (CSDD) the cost of developing a prescription drug that is successful enough to make it to market costs approximately $2.6 billion. Drugs that are researched, developed, tested but then fail in obtaining FDA approval or success long-term may never make it to market, costing the drug company millions.
And pharmaceutical companies aren’t stupid. They see the legal circus surrounding Purdue Pharma for its “role” in the opioid crisis, so drug companies may wonder if they’ll eventually be held liable for the “superbug crisis”. If a company thinks they will lose money or be sued in the future for a drug that cost billions to manufacture, they may choose to pass.
But if they pass….who steps up?
I suggest more research into other forms of treating antibiotics such as laser treatments. Or go old school with silver. During the Roman empire and Middle Ages, silver had been used as healing agent. During the Civil War, silver nitrate was used to cure Gonorrhea, another bacteria currently becoming drug resistant. The silver nitrate was eventually replaced by a colloidal silver. But in 2013 researchers at Boston University discovered why silver was so antibacterial. Its properties interfered with the cell metabolism of the pathogen as well as disrupted its wall. This mimics what antibiotics have been designed to do. Silver may be able to be used as an agent by itself, in a non toxic form of course, or used in conjunction with current antibiotics who cannot break into the bacteria wall by themselves.
When brains get deprived of oxygen, during sleep apnea or trauma, dementia and/or neurological sequelae may ensue.
For years I’ve suggested giving oxygen at night to those athletes at risk of CTE, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and those at high risk for dementia and Alzheimers. Oxygen at high concentrations have been found to help wounds heal, and why should a vulnerable organ fight for oxygen. Give the brain what it needs.
Now a study from Sydney University reports loud snoring could be an early warning sign for dementia and memory issues.
Those who have airway obstruction will make noise when they sleep. Those with obstructive sleep apnea, inability to breath during sleep due to airway obstruction by fat, large tonsils, large posterior tongue and other issues, may in response snore loudly.
Researchers found those who had sleep apnea had reduced thickness in the temporal lobes, memory centers of the brain which also are integral in speech processing and abstract thinking. When memory tests were given, those with these changes scored poorly.
Study authors suspect that older people should therefore be screened for obstructive sleep apnea. Currently we screen those who are overweight, fatigued, or hypertensive, but maybe we should screen all seniors? Personally, I feel we should intervene sooner, such as middle age, if we want to ward of dementia early.
Last year we learned of a two-year old near-drowning victim, who was submerged for nearly 15 minutes and sustained brain-damaged, surprisingly has “minimal” deficits after given extensive oxygen therapy.
In February 2016, Eden Carlson climbed through a baby gate while her mother was showering and fell into the family pool. Her mother performed CPR and medical personnel worked to revive her for hours. They succeeded, but she had suffered cardiac arrest and brain damage. Upon discharge from the hospital 48 days later, Eden had difficulty speaking, walking and responding to her family.
Her medical team then tried oxygen treatments twice a day in 45 minute sessions. These were “normobaric” oxygen treatments, or oxygen at the concentration of one atmosphere (sea level). Then three weeks later she was moved to New Orleans for “hyperbaric” oxygen treatments, or breathing 100% oxygen in a chamber greater than atmospheric pressure.
After ten sessions her mother reported “near normal” activity with doctors finding only “minimal damage” on her MRI scan.
According to NYDailyNews, the cortical and white matter atrophy (thinning) almost completely reversed.
This raises the question, should oxygen therapy, either normobaric or hyperbaric, be instituted immediately after injury (near drowning, concussion, infection, etc.) and chronically for those at higher risk of dementia (diabetics, those with heart disease, high blood pressure and cholesterol, and stroke victims)?
Athletes who sustain multiple concussions are at high risk of developing CTE, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. This progressive, degenerative disease of the brain is also found in veterans and those who have sustained repeated head trauma. Symptoms include mood disorders, paranoia, impulse control issues, aggression, and memory loss to name a few.
Many victims of CTE aren’t diagnosed until after they die, upon autopsy and evaluation of brain tissue, hence it may be worth researching early oxygen intervention to those at high risk before symptoms surface.
Now oxygen therapy is not without its risks, as those with COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, could lose their respiratory drive, and oxygen toxicity could cause bleeding and seizures. But controlled trials could allow us to investigate if one of the simplest of treatments can help battle some of the most difficult of diseases.
For centuries man has tried to translate the “Ruffs”, “Yowls” and “Gruffs” of man’s best friend to no avail. But researchers at the University of Salford have been able to define 19 of the 47 dog gestures studied in footage by their owners.
“I wanted to better understand dogs and what they wanted from us … dogs are doing something similar to great apes, but they’re doing it across species. ” says study leader Hannah Worsley, a graduate student at the University of Salford in Manchester, England.
Dogs are using referential signals, which is a type of gesture conveying a message without using words. The study concluded that the following 19 referential dog signals mean:
As you can see, Fido may be redundant, and possibly dangle his participle. But many of us dog owners agree that these gestures hit the mark as we get positive reinforcement by our pets when we oblige, another sign they possess fine communication skills.
So when a dog puts both paws on the door, he wants it open. When he wiggles his body and tushee underneath the chair or your foot, he wants to be played with. When he lies back and lifts his leg, or presses his nose against you, he wants to be scratched. And when he stands on his hind legs, he wants food.
Now this is all fine and dandy but I’ll be impressed with researchers when they teach us how to translate to dogs the following: