The leading cause of death in children are “unintentional injuries” including drownings. According to the CDC, 20% of drowning victims are under the age of 14. And non-fatal drowning victims could sustain brain damage and long term disability.
Pools, bathtubs and any body of water pose risks, however this time of year is especially dangerous, because activities surrounding pools, such as BBQs and alcohol use, become distractions to the adults supervising.
When it comes to drowning prevention, the following is necessary:
All pools should be enclosed
Fence height should be at least 4-5 feet high and the entry gate should self-close and self-latch.
Even if your pool has a fence, be aware that the house who’s hosting the BBQ, play date, or sleep-over may not.
And any kiddy pools or ice buckets used for drinks should be dumped out after use and flipped over so they do not become a future threat.
All young children should be within arm’s reach of an adult when swimming
The farther you are away from the child you’re supervising, the longer it takes to rescue. With distance between you and the victim, other children may swim in your path and you may lose sight of where the victim submerged. And seconds count. A panicked child under water may also aspirate water into the lungs becoming hypoxic quicker. Moreover they could be at risk of “secondary drowning” in which water in the larynx triggers a spasm closing up the airway, or water falling into the lungs causes pulmonary edema and respiratory failure days after the water incident.
Do not get distracted
Put the phones away. Adults supervising kids in a pool should not be answering a phone call or on social media. Moreover, adults should not be drinking alcohol while supervising a child. Reaction time is key, and a drunk adult could become a drowning victim as well.
Remember that drowning is silent
Many drownings occur while others are feet away from the victim. Why? Because a submerged victim makes little sound and nearby splashing visually and auditorily obscures the victim’s splashes.
Learn CPR and water rescue skills
Most CPR classes teach adult, child, and infant CPR. Having this knowledge and becoming certified could save a life one day.
If swimming in open waters, know the weather and sea conditions prior to jumping in. Life jackets/vests, appropriate for the child’s size, should be worn, even if the child is out of the water, such as in a boat.
What is “Dry Drowning” and “Secondary Drowning”?
Dry Drowning occurs when water touches the first pass of the respiratory tree, one’s vocal cords, larynx. When water touches this area a reflex is triggered, causing a spasm (laryngospasm) such that the vocal cords constrict and close up the airway. It’s a defense mechanism designed to prevent water from falling into the lungs. However, laryngospasm causes immediate hypoxia, lack of oxygen, and if not reversed, the victim will die. In dry drowning, water never officially reaches the lungs!
IMAGE FROM SEER TRAINING
In Secondary Drowning, water gets inhaled and sits in the respiratory tree and if uncleared through coughing, will sit and prevent proper oxygenation. Moreover the water will irritate the lung linings causing more fluid and inflammation, resulting in pulmonary edema. This could occur hours to days after the water activity.
According to Florida Hospital Tampa pediatrician, Dr. James Orlowski, these events are very rare, comprising only 1-2% of drowning incidents.
What are the symptoms?
The symptoms for both “Dry” and “Secondary Drowning” are similar in which the victim could have any of the following:
- Chest Pain
- Difficulty Breathing
- Shoulder Pain
- Neck Pain
- Behavior Changes
- Difficulty speaking
- to name a few…
Horse play in water should be avoided. This includes bathtubs, plastic pools, hot tubs, pools, lakes, ocean, etc.
Never swim alone.
Swim in areas staffed with lifeguards and/or appropriate supervision.
If water does get inhaled, watch the child or adult to look for any of the above symptoms. If concerned, seek medical help immediately.
Have a safe and healthy summer!