A new study has found the majority of people miss the most vulnerable parts of their face when applying sunscreen.
Published in PLOS One, researchers from the University of Liverpool looked at the sunscreen application habits of 84 men and women with the majority avoiding areas of the face around the eyes.
However, study authors cite the skin around the eyes is the most vulnerable to sun damage and skin cancer. SPF containing moisturizers were used even less around the eyes.
The Sun reports:
My theory: We’ve been told since we were kids to keep things away from our eyes, especially lotions.
Sunscreens use chemicals to disperse or absorb UV rays. Inorganic compounds in sunscreen such a titanium dioxide or zinc oxide attempt to scatter the UV rays. Organic compounds such as PABA and oxybenzone attempt to absorb UV rays so they can’t damage the skin.
UVA rays penetrate deeply into both the epidermis and dermis. They can cause premature aging of the skin, wrinkles, and skin cancer.
UVB rays are shorter and primarily affect the epidermis. They are responsible for causing sunburns as well as skin cancer.
SPF stands for Sun Protection Factor. The higher the SPF, the less sun photons enter the skin and cause damage. SPF primarily measures the protection against UVB rays. We multiply the SPF factor by how long it takes one’s skin to burn by the SPF number to determine the protection factor.
In theory, an SPF of 30 suggests your skin, if it burns within 10 minutes without protection, will not burn until 300 minutes has lapsed (30 times 10). However, we find this isn’t always the case. People sweat or swim and the sunscreen dissipates. Moreover many don’t put on the proper amounts (see below.)
So instead we use SPF as a grade to how much protection the product can offer.
An SPF of 15 blocks 93% of UVB rays
An SPF of 30 blocks 97% of UVB rays
An SPF of 50 blocks 98% of UVB rays
As we see, the relationship is not linear, however the higher the SPF, the more protection we have against UV rays..
Although the SPF alludes to protection against burning, hence UVB rays, a sunscreen may still protect against both UVA rays and UVB rays if it’s a broad spectrum sunscreen.
Most people apply sunscreen incorrectly or unevenly. Lotion needs to be applied at an amount of 2mg/cm2 of skin or 1 teaspoon per body part (chest, arm, leg, face and neck). It should be applied 15 minutes prior to going out into the sun and needs to be reapplied every 2 hours, or more often if swimming or sweating.
A teacher from Australia claims his 5-6 can a day habit of Energy Drinks blistered and peeled his tongue.
Dan Royals shared a picture of it on Facebook warning others to get off the caffeinated drink habit.
He wrote, “Found out it’s the chemicals in these drinks that are causing it… it literally eats away at your tongue.”
To me it appears he has “geographic tongue” a response to stress, acidity, spicy foods, or no cause at all. The tongue condition itself is benign but could signify other serious health issues.
Energy drink health risks (as explained below) can include:
A 21-year-old student in England dropped out of school when his dentist found a mouth full of rotten teeth due to his energy drink habit.
Vinnie Pyner of Margate, England, told SWNS that he would drink 6 cans of Monster Energy drinks a day to get through school. Eventually his teeth cracked and when he finally showed his mom, she rushed him to the dentist who said it was the worst case of tooth decay she had ever seen.
FOX News reported he had 24 filings and dentures to repair his front teeth and will soon return to college.
Teeth can rot easily when exposed to energy drinks due to their acidity and sugar content. The protective enamel gets eroded and is irreplacible. Moreover people may choose these drinks over healthier options such as water or milk, putting them at higher risk of dental disease.
Years ago, Demi Moore confessed on The Tonight Show with Jimmy Fallon that she lost two of her teeth. The 56 year-old actress cited stress as the reason.
Stress could be a factor, however, that would mean all of us would lose our teeth before senior year high school.
What came to mind was a previous report on Moore’s diet.
In 2012, the actress was hospitalized and multiple rumors surfaced as to what caused her collapse. Some reported an energy drink addiction, some cited anorexia, some said it occurred after inhaling the gas from a whip cream canister. Witnesses reported seizure like activity. According to Daily Mail,
A source told Radar: “She collapsed after having an epileptic seizure… she has not taken care of her health at all lately and has lost a ton of weight.” “Demi is in getting treated for anorexia, as well as other issues that caused her seizure.”
After she recovered, it was revealed that her diet included: “Red Bull for breakfast. Red Bull for lunch. Red Bull for dinner, with a lettuce leaf and a tablespoon yes a tablespoon of tuna fish thrown in… That’s it.” as reported by Light987.com.
According to Medical Daily, Moore had been drinking energy drinks for over 10 years.
Three energy drinks a day in the company of a poor diet could wreck havoc on one’s health. But what about teeth?
In 2012 a study from the Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine found the acidity of energy drinks to damage tooth enamel, thereby increasing risk of cavities.
Earlier this year, a 28 year old man from New Zealand, who allegedly drank three cans of energy drinks a day, lost multiple teeth and suffered from severe gum disease.
Energy drinks provide little in the type of nutrition gums and teeth require. Our jaws, gums and teeth were designed to chew, face a variety of forces, and then get washed down with water and our own saliva to avoid damage from non-neutral pH compounds. A balanced diet, with food we need to chew, low on sugar and acidity is just what the human mouth needs.
Other causes of teeth loss (edentulism) include:
So not only is it important to brush, floss, water pick and see one’s dentist regularly, but taking care of one’s non-dental health can be just as crucial to keeping our pearly whites.
A study from the University of Texas finds the consumption of energy drinks to have negative effects on the cardiovascular system by narrowing blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood as soon as 90 minutes.
Vessels that supply the heart, which may already be narrowed due to atherosclerosis, could narrow even more.
Moreover the restriction of blood flow to vital organs implies the brain may not receive the optimal circulation it needs.
The study was conducted by scientists who looked at the endothelial lining of blood vessels in 44 healthy non-smoking students and found within 90 minutes of drinking a 24 oz energy drink the vessel dilation dropped from 5.1% in diameter to 2.8% in diameter.
The study was conducted by scientists who looked at the endothelial lining of blood vessels in 44 healthy non-smoking students and found within 90 minutes of drinking a 24 oz energy drink the vessel dilation dropped from 5.1% in diameter to 2.8% in diameter.
Now energy drinks contain various levels of caffeine, as explained below. But they also contain taurine, sugar, vitamins and other ingredients. This study did not look specifically at caffeine but energy drinks, so the authors can’t specify what’s the culprit.
Last year, however, a South Carolina high school student collapsed in class and later died from allegedly consuming an energy drink. The coroner’s report, revealed cited caffeine as the cause. The caffeine induced a cardiac arrhythmia, abnormal heart rhythm, and 16-year old Davis Allen Cripe tragically died within an hour.
What’s shocking is the amount of caffeine he ingested was not very high. According to Richland County Coroner Gary Watts, Cripe drank, within a two-hour period, a large Mountain Dew, an energy drink, and a cafe latte from McDonalds. The teen had no medical problems or family history of heart issues.
A large Mountain Dew contains 54 mg per 12 fluid oz. So a 20 oz drink would be close to 100 mg caffeine.
Energy drinks, depending on the brand, contain approximately 80 mg of caffeine per can.
A cafe latte from McDonalds, medium size, contains 142 mg of caffeine.
This in total would equal approximately 320 mg of caffeine ingested within a two-hour period.
The lethal dose of caffeine in adults range from 150-200 mg/ kg body weight. So a 70 kg adult could consume a toxic level of caffeine at 10 grams (10,000 mg).
So 320 mg of caffeine is well below the toxic level. But what caffeine could do could be the more dangerous part.
Caffeine has been known to induce arrhythmias. It’s a stimulant, hence it can affect the heart’s electrical conductivity that manages the organ’s pumping action. Once the electricity is disrupted, the heart muscle fails to have a predictable, rhythmic stimulation, hence cannot pump effectively.
Caffeine also causes vasoconstriction, so blood flow to the heart could be compromised, potentially inducing a heart attack.
In 2014, researchers from Barcelona found energy drinks to be linked to rare cases of heart attack and arrhythmia.
A cup of coffee averages 95mg of caffeine whereas an energy drink contains 80mg. But the latter is consumed much quicker than a hot cup of Joe that needs to be sipped, hence the consumer takes in a larger load of caffeine in a shorter amount of time. This could be too much too fast for the heart.
The following is a chart of average caffeine content in common drinks:
IN 2016 we learned that a 50-year old man with hepatitis C went into acute liver failure after drinking 4-5 energy drinks a day for a period of a three weeks. The culprit appeared to be the Niacin content in each energy drink (200%RDA) that accumulated over the days and became toxic to the liver. Although this is the first time we’ve heard of this severe a hepatic side effect, energy drinks are not foreign to being hazardous to one’s health.
Depending on the brand, ingredients can include the following:
Sugars such as sucrose, glucose or high fructose corn syrup
Guarana extract- an energy supplement also high in caffeine
Taurine – an amino acid that has health benefits but could strain the kidney
Vitamins B 2, 3, 6 and 12 (and Vitamin A and C in some brands)
and multiple other ingredients and additives (Ginkgo Biloba, Ginseng, etc. depending on the brand)
Energy drinks have been known to cause a variety of issues: anxiety, insomnia, restlessness, caffeine withdrawal, a rise in blood sugar…. to name a few.
However the focus of energy drink risks has been on the heart. One study from the Mayo Clinic found blood pressure and adrenaline to rise after drinking an energy drink. In 2011 a case report looked at two teenage boys who went into atrial fibrillation, a deadly heart rhythm. In 2015, doctors blamed energy drinks for a 25 year old man’s heart attack.
We’ve learned that caffeine, though innocent-appearing in coffee and tea, can be deadly not only as a result of quantity but the administration of it. A cup of coffee may have the same amount of caffeine as an energy drink (assuming the Guarana extract isn’t adding more to the total caffeine dose). But a hot cup of coffee is sipped slowly, whereas an energy drink served cold or at room temperature is usually chugged. The huge bolus of caffeine may be too quick-too-much for the body to digest and distribute slowly.
The high sugar content of energy drinks could put one at risk of diabetes. And with the recent case of acute liver failure, we are reminded that ingredients of energy drinks could at high doses cause hepatitis (inflammation of the liver).
Additionally, this week we learned that mixing alcohol with energy drinks, a popular party ritual, caused brain changes in mice similar to those caused by cocaine.
I can’t convince everyone to reach for a piece of broccoli rather than an energy drink when in need of a boost, but at the very least we should deter use by children and teens, and educate those with vulnerable hearts, blood pressure, diabetes, kidney and liver issues that an energy drink may not be the wisest beverage choice.
As kids we were taught to never approach a stranger, and to NEVER get in the car of a stranger. Yet with ride sharing services exploding over the last few years we’ve let our guard down. And the kidnapping and murder of a 21-year-old college student who jumped into the back seat of a car, whom she thought was an Uber diver, shed light on how we as a society need to remind ourselves of stranger danger. So here are some safety tips when considering ride sharing…
For those of us comic book buffs, we might have had to take a deep breath before explaining to non buffs what just happened this year, with both Captain Marvel and Shazam hitting the theaters when they are technically the same person.
In the late 30’s Captain Marvel made his debut and was owned by Whiz Comics and Fawcett Publications. It was a competitor’s response to Superman and the comics did very well.
According to Wikipedia:
But after a series of disputes and lawsuits, Captain Marvel was semi-retired until DC Comics/National in the 1970s licensed Captain Marvel and then purchased him in the 1990s.
Marvel Comics, however, was able to secure the trademark of Captain Marvel, so DC Comics couldn’t use the Captain Marvel name anymore. So in renaming the superhero, DC Comics combined the electrical powers of Captain Marvel with the word used by the wizard’s spell, Shazam!
So rather than Billy Batson becoming Captain Marvel when he cries “Shazam”, he simply becomes, Shazam.
Shazam hits theaters April 5, 2019.
A synthetic alcohol, named Alcarelle, or “Alcosynth,” has been shown to give one the same effects of alcohol without the nasty hangover the next day.
Dr. Professor Nutt, apparently has been working on this for decades, as a PhD student since the early 1980’s. The synthetic alcohol is slated to hit the market in 5 years.
He told the Guardian:
We know where in the brain alcohol has its ‘good’ effects and ‘bad’ effects, and what particular receptors mediate that – Gaba, glutamate and other ones, such as serotonin and dopamine.
“The effects of alcohol are complicated but … you can target the parts of the brain you want to target.”
Alcohol stimulates GABA, a neurotransmitter that can reduce activity of nerve cells making one sluggish. Alcohol also inhibits glutamate which is an excitatory neurotransmitter. But the euphoric feeling one gets may be caused by alcohol’s stimulation of dopamine.
Hence if a drink that acts as ethanol, isn’t actually alcohol, side effects such as drowsiness, stomach upset and liver disease could potentially be bypassed.
Professor Nutt has not revealed the ingredients of his concoction but some resources cite it may be a benzodiazepine derivative, although last year he denied the rumors of using the Valium-like chemicals.
It’s a constellation of symptoms that occur post-partying…..and include headache, muscle ache, nausea, anxiety, moodiness, wanting to avoid light and loud sounds, eye redness, thirst and dizziness, though some hangovers may have many more symptoms.
They could be caused by a variety of factors:
Other theories suggesting lactic acid build up, withdrawal from drinking the night before, and congeners that are compounds that vary in alcohol types (red wine vs vodka).
So how can you cure your hangover?
Hydrate people, hydrate. Alcohol is a diuretic, which means it makes you urinate more and lose valuable fluid and salts. Water is the easiest, most tolerable, cheapest way to hydrate. Take it slow so you don’t vomit. And not scotch and water. Just water….
An empty stomach is an irritable one. While most sources say eat a “greasy breakfast,” I would recommend balanced breakfast with protein. Give the stomach acid something to chew on but make it easily digestible. Remember the alcohol irritated your gut so you need to go easy on it. Baby steps, but healthy baby steps
Take a short, brisk walk. The adrenaline gets the blood pumping and can help with the headache. The cool air outside will feel good when you inhale and some endorphins will release. This may help with your headache.
Chinese researchers back in 2013 found Sprite to be the best hangover cure and even though we don’t have many other studies to back it up, the sweet and bubbly it provides makes your head and tummy feel better.
Sports Drinks add the salts you lost from alcohol’s diuretic features. Though many of us don’t like the taste, those who do find it a nice way to hydrate.
Originally it was a treatment to ward off rabies. One would, after being bit by a dog, put a piece of dog hair on the wound. A treating fire-with-fire strategy. It later was used for hangovers. Treating a hangover with a chaser of alcohol was supposed to elevate moods and lessen the withdrawal. To date there is not enough scientific support to recommend hair of the dog.
Want to avoid a hangover? Here’s how:
Firstly, try to avoid getting drunk. Set your limits and stick to it.
Secondly, drink plenty of water throughout the night and once you get home.
Finally, don’t drink on an empty stomach to “speed up the buzz.” Your empty gut will absorb alcohol quicker so eat a good nutritious meal prior to partying.
Avoid popping anti-inflammatories or Tylenol once you get home because your stomach and liver are already irritated from the alcohol and this may make matters worse. But if any of the above “cures” don’t help, you may need to use these as a last resort.
The 20 year old model allegedly slit her wrists earlier Saturday. She was treated and released by a local hospital, despite earlier reports that she would be held for observation.
TMZ reports the pedophile allegations made against her father Michael Jackson might have incited this latest attempt on her life. (Editor's note: Paris Jackson is out of the hospital and denies any suicide attempt. She claims she was injured in an "accident" and had to go to the hospital because of it. So- maybe, maybe not, right?) In 2013 she attempted to commit suicide by slitting her wrists as well. She is currently being supervised by her team of doctors.
This is a developing story.
Each year 47,000 Americans take their lives. That averages to 123 people a day. And each suicide affects everyone with whom the person has regular encounters. So why is it so common? Here are six reasons people choose to end their life.
When tragedy strikes, whether it be an accident, break up, job loss, missed opportunity, some can’t see “the light at the end of the tunnel.” Many think and navigate through life one step at a time, which may be productive when it comes to tackling tasks, but if they feel the obstacle in front of them is insurmountable they may believe their options are far and few between, with death being the only out.
Many of us have been trained to act on a whim. We quickly reply to a text, pop some food in the microwave, flick the controller while playing a video game…and these quick, instinctive acts are becoming apart of our daily behavior. So when one has a fleeting thought of suicide, they may be less likely to slow down and think it through.
This is one of the least discussed reasons people commit suicide, but unfortunately more common than we think. Although most of us fear death and dying, some pathologically can’t handle the thought of it happening out of the blue. Those who need control and need to plan ahead, may find solace in the fact that they are planning their own death. They can’t control their birth but they can control their death, they believe, and for those who feel they have lost control of their life may find this tragic option welcoming.
Hollywood stereotypes depression as a woman sitting on a couch eating ice cream to combat the tears and loneliness of a breakup. But many have symptoms of severe depression and don’t know it.
So many self medicate either by over-eating, drinking alcohol, smoking weed, or taking pills, which when wears off, can sink one into a lower funk. Without psychological or medical intervention, one struggles to recover.
Since so many people are undiagnosed when it comes to depression, family members and friends are unaware their loved one is struggling. Going about one’s business may be inferred as indifference by someone suffering from a mood disorder. “They won’t even notice I’m gone,” pervades their thoughts and worsens their loneliness.
If one feels they’ve been ignored, unheard or wronged, this could incite an “I’ll show ’em” attitude in which their suicide is plotted to be a form of psychological revenge.
Sadly many out there secretly hope they get help but don’t know how to ask for it. It’s up to us to seek them out and guide them to a medical professional who can listen, understand, and work with them.
WSB radio reports hundreds of experts have signed a UN and WHO petition to warn against the cancer risks and medical dangers of AppleAirPods.
The EMF (electromagnetic frequency) radio waves emitted from the Bluetooth technology has been proven to cause health effects in “living organisms.”
And with its close proximity to the human skull, scientists are nervous.
A study from the National Institutes of Health last year reported “clear evidence” that cell phone radiation may be connected to cancer of the adrenal glands and brain.
Tests were performed on mice and rats, using much higher levels of radiation than humans are exposed to. However, only the male rats demonstrated increase risk of brain tumors.
The study performed by Dr. John Bucher and colleagues at the National Toxicology Program (NTP) in North Carolina tested radio frequency radiation (RFR) used in 2G and 3G cell phones. The minimum amount of radiation given to the mice would be considered the maximum amount of radiation federal regulators allow on humans. The maximum amount of radiation given to the mice was 4X higher than the maximum allowed in humans.
Hence this was a study that looked at extreme conditions that the average human is not exposed to. However, they cite “clear evidence” that the radiation incited tumors in the rats.
For more on the study see here.
Now in August of 2018, a large study from the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) in Spain, however, found no clear evidence of brain tumor risk with cell phone use.
Researchers in this study looked at 9000 people from seven different countries, having a range of occupations, and interviewed them on their occupational electromagnetic frequency (EMF) use. Sciencealert.com reports 4000 of these patients had brain tumors (glioma and meningioma) and were compared to the other 5000 who didn’t.
The good news is they did not find a correlation between those who sustained a brain tumor and those with high EMF exposure. However the bad news is they found only a small percentage of those studied actually would be deemed to have “High EMF” exposure hence leaving us still questioning if too much cell phone exposure is still risky.
Study author Javier Villa states, “Although we did not find a positive association, the fact that we observed indication of an increased risk in the group with most recent radiofrequency exposure deserves further investigation,” and suggests, “we shouldn’t worry for now, but we do need to focus future efforts on making sharper tools to analyse any hypothetical risk.”
Cell phones emit radio waves. These are a form of non-ionizing radiation that provides an energy source through radio frequency. Ionizing radiation is emitted by xrays, cosmic rays, and radon, and have been linked to cancer as it is a high frequency, high energy form of electromagnetic radiation. Non-ionizing radiation include radio waves, microwaves, visible light, UV light, infrared, and lasers. Although UV radiation may cause skin cancer, the other sources are deemed less dangerous than their ionizing radiation counterparts.
One of the more recent studies unveiled in May of 2016 reported cell phone radiation caused brain tumors in mice. Rats exposed to the radiofrequency radiation for 7-9 hours a day, seven days a week, were more prone to develop the malignant gliomas as well has tumors in the heart. This study was not intended to be translated to human risk, but of course it made headlines and scared us silly.
Prior to this, in 2011, the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified cell phone use and other radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as “possibly carcinogenic to humans”.
However, multiple studies have been done, as descriptively outlined by the National Cancer Institute, and are assuring us that there is no imminent danger by our daily use of cell phones. The NCI also provides recommendations from the CDC, FDA, and FCC stating not enough evidence exists to establish a link between cell phones and cancer.
Although arguments continue over cell phone radiation causing cancer, it has been proven that heat is given off. Many people complain their ear gets hot after lengthy cell phone use and studies have yet to determine if cell phone heat can cause oncogenic changes in cells. They’ve studied if the radiation affects metabolic activity, and a team led by Dr. Nora Volkow, head of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, found visible brain activity changes on the side the cell phone was being used. They recommended after this study keeping the cell phone away from the body and using a lower radiation emitting phone.
We wait and see. My suggestion is to not overdo it with our phones. Use the speaker setting when practical so as to not consistently hug the phone to your skull. Take breaks in between lengthy calls. Text when appropriate to minimize exposure as well.
The following has been recommended for both children and adults:
Or do what I do when I talk to my mother, hold the phone 3 feet away from my head. I can still hear her…..just fine……
The 78 year-old iconic game show host has revealed last week that he has Stage 4 pancreatic cancer, vowing to “fight this” deadly malignancy.
However, in an interview with Business Insider, he admitted to having a Milky Way and diet soda for breakfast every day, “A Diet Coke or a Diet Pepsi or a Diet Dr. Pepper,” especially on taping days.
A Stage 4 is given to cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.
Each year over 55,000 Americans are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, whose 5-year survival rate is 5%. Older individuals who are healthy can do as well as those who are younger when diagnosed with advanced stage of the disease. However some sources cite the median survival time is between 2 and 6 months if the cancer is diagnosed at a late stage.
Known risk factors for pancreatic cancer include:
Artificial sweeteners have been linked to diabetes and diabetes is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Their relationship to pancreatic cancer, however, still remains controversial.
Senator Bernie Sanders during the 2016 Presidential Election called for a single payer system to cure our healthcare woes. Now Democratic contenders for the 2020 election are calling for the same. Some voters are salivating at the thought, tired of high insurance premiums and deductibles. Others are cringing at the idea of the government running our healthcare system. Yet most are confused and want more details. So let’s break it down.
Medicare is the health insurance offered by the federal government for those over 65 and with disabilities. According to medicare.gov they breakdown medicare as the following:
Part A covers inpatient hospital stays, care in a skilled nursing facility, hospice care, and some home health care.
Part B covers certain doctors’ services, outpatient care, medical supplies, and preventive services.
Part D adds prescription drug coverage to:
These plans are offered by insurance companies and other private companies approved by Medicare. Medicare Advantage Plans may also offer prescription drug coverage that follows the same rules as Medicare Prescription Drug Plans
Originally suggested by Senator Bernie Sanders, Medicare for All would essentially allow all Americans to qualify for Medicare. According to Unitedmedicareadvisors.com:
The concept sounds nice but Medicare doesn’t currently cover many of the above such as hearing aids, dental exams, and long-term care.
Unitedmedicareadvisors.com reports the following:
Unfortunately, tax hikes on employers could lead to price hikes and less employment.
So the concerns I have are Medicare doesn’t currently cover what Medicare for All is touting and the expense may be underprojected.
Moreover many healthcare providers do NOT take Medicare so access can be an issue.
However, until premiums and deductibles go down, and more Americans become insured, plans such as this will gain attention and popularity.
As we turn the bend during the second semester of the school year we begin to face challenges. For many of us the material seems insurmountable….maybe we perceive it as such, or maybe teachers realize they are falling short and rush to get all the information in before the school year ends.
Either way, students feel stressed, overwhelmed and many times unable to catch up. So what do you do when you find the material to be TMTH (too much to handle)?
Firstly, realize that you don’t have to learn everything. Remember, the professor can’t test on EVERYTHING. So don’t go at a packet, slide deck or book with the attitude that you have to know everything. Find the Titles, the main point in the paragraph that follows, and any supporting info that seems to buttress the main point. Careful with your use of highlighting if you’re tired and burning out because you’ll start to highlight everything. Which brings us to….
Two heads are better than one. Sometimes three…but more than that may be distracting. What you thought was important in class or on a sheet of information can be confirmed or denied by another student. Moreover everyone has strengths and weaknesses so find one who can compliment you and help you discern what’s important to know.
Rather than guessing, take 15 minutes to meet with the teacher to get an idea of what they find imperative to learn/know for the test. But don’t go into their office asking “will this be on the test?” I would be direct, honest, but humble by asking:
Now, many times the professor will oblige. But if not, you need to indirectly determine what he/she is going to test. This brings us to…..
How was the material given?
If your professor brushed over it quickly in class, it could mean they don’t find it crucial enough to test or ….they don’t completely understand the material themselves. Most likely this will not be tested. However, if he/she brushed over it because it was given in a previous lecture, then its open game.
Demonstrations of the brush over include:
Are they big on testing if you paid attention in class or knowing the information that’s necessary to succeed? Are they a jerk and will pick the most esoteric piece of content from a 1000 word slide or will they focus on main points? Get an idea on what makes them tick.
For some institutions the exam is to test competency. These are the most clear-cut, fair tests and to me, make the most sense. If, for example, in medical school one is studying poor lung function and what a spirometer discerns, the inventor and history of the tool will most likely not be tested. Keep in mind, your professor has bosses and they have bosses, so your competency reflects on them.
For other institutions it may be at the professor’s discretion. So you need to feel out each teacher and see what they’re all about. If they are big on class attendance and will weight the test towards those who showed up, expect questions on content that was highlighted in class. And if they are big on seeing if you paid attention, you will be tested on something they impressed upon you sometime during lecture. So during the lecture watch for the following:
So after you’ve done your “homework,” how do you tackle your studies?
Your time is divisible so grab a calculator and aliquot into equal periods. Make sure you have extra sessions included for breaks and catch up sessions. Or you can use a calendar that is already compartmentalized on which to create your timetable.
Clean your desk!
A nice clean, crisp desk with plenty of pens and highlighters helps energize one more than cluttered paper. Moreover have a second work space you can go to when you get sick of working at your desk.
Now this is easier said than done. Some will put their hardest classes on their study calendar first, some the easiest. There are pros and cons to both. What I suggest is alternating difficult and easy subjects. You need the start of your day and initial power hours knocking out the difficult material, but then the easier classes will boost your confidence and sometimes energy. So one option could be:
Take real breaks!
You should design two types of breaks: Short and Long.
Your short break should be no shorter than 10 minutes. During the break you must do the following:
Your long break should be no shorter than 45 minutes. During these breaks you can:
If you’re “going through the motions” of studying and feel “burnt” you won’t be absorbing the material and subsequently you’ll be wasting precious hours. You must identify burnout by looking for the following:
When studying you’re classwork it’s difficult to avoid the boredom and stress, but the following may help:
Remember, we’ve all been there and school is supposed to be challenging. Stay on course and get help if you need such as a tutor. We all make it to the finish line….even if we’re a little bruised up when we get there.